## Saturday, May 23, 2020

### Gravity Model Definition and Examples

For decades, social scientists have been using a modified version ofÃ‚  Isaac Newtons Law of GravitationÃ‚  to predict the movement of people, information, and commodities between cities and even continents. The gravity model, as social scientists refer to the modified law of gravitation, takes into account the population size of two places and their distance. Since larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places and places closer together have a greater attraction, the gravity model incorporates these two features. The relative strength of a bond between two places is determined by multiplying the population of city A by the population of city B and then dividing the product by the distance between the two cities squared. The Gravity Model Population 1 x Population 2_________________________ Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  distanceÃ‚ ² Examples If we compare the bond between the New York and Los Angeles metropolitan areas, we first multiply their 1998 populations (20,124,377 and 15,781,273, respectively) to get 317,588,287,391,921 and then we divide that number by theÃ‚  distanceÃ‚  (2462 miles) squared (6,061,444). The result is 52,394,823. We can shorten our math by reducing the numbers to the millions place: 20.12 times 15.78 equals 317.5 and then divide by 6 with a result of 52.9. Now, lets try two metropolitan areas a bit closer: El Paso (Texas) and Tucson (Arizona). We multiply their populations (703,127 and 790,755) to get 556,001,190,885 and then we divide that number by the distance (263 miles) squared (69,169) and the result is 8,038,300. Therefore, the bond between New York and Los Angeles is greater than that of El Paso and Tucson. How about El Paso and Los Angeles? Theyre 712 miles apart, 2.7 times farther than El Paso and Tucson! Well, Los Angeles is so large that it provides a huge gravitational force for El Paso. Their relative force is 21,888,491, a surprising 2.7 times greater than the gravitational force between El Paso and Tucson. While the gravity model was created to anticipate migration between cities (and we can expect that more people migrate between LA and NYC than between El Paso and Tucson), it can also be used to anticipate the traffic between two places, the number of telephone calls, the transportation of goods and mail, and other types of movement between places. The gravity model can also be used to compare the gravitational attraction between two continents, two countries, two states, two counties, or even two neighborhoods within the same city. Some prefer to use the functional distance between cities instead of the actual distance. The functional distance can be the driving distance or can even be flight time between cities. The gravity model was expanded by William J. Reilly in 1931 into Reillys law of retail gravitation to calculate the breaking point between two places where customers will be drawn to one or another of two competing commercial centers. Opponents of the gravity model explain that it can not be confirmed scientifically, that its only based on observation. They also state that the gravity model is an unfair method of predicting movement because its biased toward historic ties and toward the largest population centers. Thus, it can be used to perpetuate the status quo.

## Wednesday, May 6, 2020

### The effects of implementation Free Essays

One may ponder how the school came to be such a beautiful place, that even visitors and strangers pause for admiration. To begin with, in the year 1950-1951 through energetic Mayor Marcia V. Marino, the school of Sat. We will write a custom essay sample on The effects of implementation or any similar topic only for you Order Now Brigade was initiated to be opened. During those days the school site was purely a wilderness and abode of wild animals. Luckily in July 1950, some of the loyal and hardworking men in the persons of Mr.. Severe De Leon Villain, and Mrs.. Richard Cruz a barrio lieutenant, and P. T. A. President. They made a petition signed by all the residents of the place that the community Is In dire need of a school site and building to house their future and present citizens. With GodÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s blessing the petition was granted and approved In August 1952 with Mr.. Potential Antonio being the first supervisor. Through his dynamic guidance and supervision a school building was sprung up from the good coordination, help and untiring effort to good people of Sat. Brigade. A lady teacher was assigned in the person of Miss Marcela Orbs to organized Grade I classes. The class was first housed temporarily in a private house until finally a school site has been surveyed by Engineer Felon Radon and approved by the government under proclamation No. 51 Series of 1962 by the late President MacDougal. Immediately In 1953 a P. T. A. Building was constructed In the school site spear headed by Mr.. Richard Cruz, the barrio captain, and parents of the community, with special mention to the late Mr.. Alexandra ABA, the chief carpenter who made the school building reached Its completion. Year In and year out additional crowded In until finally in June 1958-1959 a complete primary grades were opened under the head teacher Mr.. Edgar Artist. Year 1961-1962, intermediate classes were opened thus made Sat. Brigade a complete elementary school. His administration was marked by the construction of one MarcoÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s type, 2 Type B-A, and one P. T. A. Building. But time flew so fast that by the year 1969-1970. Mr.. Edgar Artist was transferred to Room Elementary School and was placed by Mrs.. Slalom B. Rodeos cashed teacher. During his first year of office a permanent fence, flagpole and concrete water- sealed toilet was constructed all of which were donated by the good people of Sat. Brigade and at the same time a MarcoÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Type Building was constructed and completed too. By 1972-1973, the school got a lion share from the ten percent (10%) tax collection, which made the completion of two more buildings and P. T. A. building now seen at the west side of the school site. The following year she was promoted Into a Principal, and together with her promotion was the construction of another How to cite The effects of implementation, Papers

## Monday, March 23, 2020

### Cloning Essays (3110 words) - Cloning, Molecular Biology, Genetics

Cloning Shortly after the announcement that British scientists had successfully cloned a sheep, Dolly, cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more feasible in today's society. The word clone has been applied to cells as well as to organisms, so that a group of cells stemming from a single cell is also called a clone. Usually the members of a clone are identical in their inherited characteristics that is, in their genes except for any differences caused by mutation. Identical twins, for example, who originate by the division of a single fertilized egg, are members of a clone; whereas nonidentical twins, who derive from two separate fertilized eggs, are not clones. (Microsoft? Encarta? 97 Encyclopedia). There are two known ways that we can clone humans. The first way involves splitting an embryo into several halves and creating many new individuals from that embryo. The second method of cloning a human involves taking cells from an already existing human being and clo ning them, in turn creating other individuals that are identical to that particular person. With these two methods at our desposal, we must ask ourselves two very important questions: Should we do this, and Can we? There is no doubt that many problems involving the technological and ethical sides of this issue will arise and will be virtually impossible to avoid, but the overall idea of cloning humans is one that we should accept as a possible reality for the future. Cloning humans is an idea that has always been thought of as something that could be found in science fiction novels, but never as a concept that society could actually experience. Today's technological speed has brought us to the piont to where almost anything is possible. Sarah B. Tegen, '97 MIT Biology Undergraduate President states, I think the cloning of an entire mammal has shown me exactly how fast biology is moving ahead, I had no idea we were so close to this kind of accomplishment. Based on the current science , though, most of these dreams and fears are premature, say some MIT biologists. Many biologist claim that true human cloning is something still far in the future. This raises ethical questions now as towhether or not human cloning should even be attempted. (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/). There are many problems with cloning humans. One method of human cloning is splitting embryos. The main issue as to whether or not human cloning is possible through the splitting of embryos began in 1993 when experimentation was done at George Washington University Medical Center in Washington D.C. There Dr. Jerry Hall experimented with the possibility of human cloning and began this moral and ethical debate. There it was concluded that cloning is not something that can be done as of now, but it is quite a possibility for the future. These scientists experimented eagerly in aims of learning how to clone humans. Ruth Macklin of U.S. News & World Report writes, Hall and other scientists split single humans embryos into identical copies, a technology that opens a Pandora's box of ethical questions and has sparked a storm of controversy around the world (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/). They attempted to create seventeen human embryos in a laboratory dish and when it had grown enoug h, separated them into forty-eight individual cells. Two of the separated cells survived for a few days in the lab developed into new human embryos smaller than the head of a pin and consisting of thirty-two cells each. (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/) Although we cannot clone a human yet, this experiment occurred almost two years ago and triggered almost an ethical emergency. Evidence from these experiments received strange reactions from the public. Ruth Macklin states, Cloning is a radical challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, so it's not unreasonable to be concerned that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust--a sort of yuk factor. And that makes it hard for even trained scientists and ethicists to see the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive case that it would do any real harm, either. (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/). Theologians contend that to