Saturday, May 23, 2020
For decades, social scientists have been using a modified version ofÃ Isaac Newtons Law of GravitationÃ to predict the movement of people, information, and commodities between cities and even continents. The gravity model, as social scientists refer to the modified law of gravitation, takes into account the population size of two places and their distance. Since larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places and places closer together have a greater attraction, the gravity model incorporates these two features. The relative strength of a bond between two places is determined by multiplying the population of city A by the population of city B and then dividing the product by the distance between the two cities squared. The Gravity Model Population 1 x Population 2_________________________ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã distanceÃ ² Examples If we compare the bond between the New York and Los Angeles metropolitan areas, we first multiply their 1998 populations (20,124,377 and 15,781,273, respectively) to get 317,588,287,391,921 and then we divide that number by theÃ distanceÃ (2462 miles) squared (6,061,444). The result is 52,394,823. We can shorten our math by reducing the numbers to the millions place: 20.12 times 15.78 equals 317.5 and then divide by 6 with a result of 52.9. Now, lets try two metropolitan areas a bit closer: El Paso (Texas) and Tucson (Arizona). We multiply their populations (703,127 and 790,755) to get 556,001,190,885 and then we divide that number by the distance (263 miles) squared (69,169) and the result is 8,038,300. Therefore, the bond between New York and Los Angeles is greater than that of El Paso and Tucson. How about El Paso and Los Angeles? Theyre 712 miles apart, 2.7 times farther than El Paso and Tucson! Well, Los Angeles is so large that it provides a huge gravitational force for El Paso. Their relative force is 21,888,491, a surprising 2.7 times greater than the gravitational force between El Paso and Tucson. While the gravity model was created to anticipate migration between cities (and we can expect that more people migrate between LA and NYC than between El Paso and Tucson), it can also be used to anticipate the traffic between two places, the number of telephone calls, the transportation of goods and mail, and other types of movement between places. The gravity model can also be used to compare the gravitational attraction between two continents, two countries, two states, two counties, or even two neighborhoods within the same city. Some prefer to use the functional distance between cities instead of the actual distance. The functional distance can be the driving distance or can even be flight time between cities. The gravity model was expanded by William J. Reilly in 1931 into Reillys law of retail gravitation to calculate the breaking point between two places where customers will be drawn to one or another of two competing commercial centers. Opponents of the gravity model explain that it can not be confirmed scientifically, that its only based on observation. They also state that the gravity model is an unfair method of predicting movement because its biased toward historic ties and toward the largest population centers. Thus, it can be used to perpetuate the status quo.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
This essay will compare contrast the protagonist/antagonists relationship with each other and the other jurors in the play and in the movie versions of Reginald Roses 12 Angry Men. There arent any changes made to the key part of the story but yet the minor changes made in making the movie adaptation produce a different picture than what one imagines when reading the drama in the form of a play. First off, the settings in the movie are a great deal more fleshed out. In the play, the scene begins with the jurors regarding the judges final statements concerning the case in the courtroom and then walking out into the jury room. In the movie, the audience is placed in the role of the invisible casual observer, who for perhaps the first 5Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In analyzing the differences in the antagonists and protagonists relationship with each other and the other jurors, it too held to the plays guidelines with the various alliances and verbal sparring making sense in light of each jurors moral alignment and personality. There was one difference, a minor or major one depending how it was viewed. Detached from the ending, Juror 3 being more humanely portrayed in the movie than in the play was a minor change. Seen in relation to the movies ending, Juror 3s inner conflicts and humanness is a very a major change. Finally the endings are to be discussed. Here, the play and the movie are obviously very different. The director with his poetic license makes a very obvious change only hinted at subtly earlier on and the impact it has on the audiences conclusions at the end of the movie and the differences between that and those garnered at the end of the play are great. He tells us that Juror 3 was an abusive and uncaring father who, because he caused him to run away, has not seen his son- very similar to the defendant- in over 2 years. Ah, now we can see where his biases stem from: past negative experiences with his son, the rebellious nature of which justifies the execution of the defendant. Yet at the very end of the movie we sympathize with Juror 3 just as we did with defendant. We see his brutish, sadistic demeanor is just a faÃ §ade, and at oneShow MoreRelatedCommunication in 12 Angry Men Essay1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 12 Angry Men When placed in a group with different personalities, you have to find a way to work and communicate effectively as a team; of course youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find yourself stuck at times because of certain barriers such as the lack of communication between members. However, group members have to find the ability to work together as a team. In the film Ã¢â¬Å"12 Angry Men,Ã¢â¬ we see a group of jurors who have to decide whether the defendant has committed the crime or is presumed innocent throughoutRead MoreThe Twelve Angry Men Juror 3 and Juror 8 Comparing Essay1919 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesbetween Jurors 3 and 8? What about differences? Oh gosh, its been years since Ive seen the movie (didnt read the play).Ã Okay,Ã JurorÃ #3 is the angry father, and Juror #8 is the guy who stands alone in the INNOCENT vote, right? I suspect the similarities are easier to find by reading the play because the movie really shows their contrasts. There is one similarity in that when they really believe something, they are passionate about their cause. Juror 3 is explosive and highly emotional Read MoreThemes Lie At The Heart Of Sir Thomas Wyatt1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthemes lie at the heart of Sir Thomas WyattÃ¢â¬â¢s love poems. In his poem, the reader sees what is absent in the Renaissance idea of courtly love and thus this essay will attempt to explore the ways the theme of betrayal and infidelity are portrayed in contrast to courtly love and how women usually cause these actions. Betrayal is a common theme often depicted in WyattÃ¢â¬â¢s poems. In many of his poems, the speaker, who is assumed to be male, is normally the person who is at the receiving end of the betrayalRead MoreComparing and Contrasting quot;My Papas Waltzquot; and quot;Pianoquot;699 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn comparing and contrasting the poems, My Papas Waltz by Theodore Roethke and Piano by D. H. Lawrence, the reader could also compare and contrast the childhood lives of the poets themselves. Roethkes father, Otto Roethke, was a drunk and a figure of terror to his son (Seager 26). His mother was an angry woman and Theodore was a desperate child consistently in the middle of his parents opposition (Seager 28). D.H. Lawrences father was a drunk, almost illiterate miner (Squires and Talbot 34)Read MoreCompare/Contrast The Friars Tale and The Summoners Tale1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCompare/Contrast The Friars Tale and The Summoners Tale Isaac Atayero Sir. John Campion Advanced Placement United States History 12/14/11 In ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s genius work, The Canterbury Tales, the Friar and the Summoner tell tales of mockery about one another. Like the Miller and the Reeve before them the Friar and the Summoner are in rivalry with each other. However the difference between the rivalry between the Reeve and the Miller and the rivalry between the Friar and the SummonerRead MoreHow Emerson And His Ideas Were Influenced The Weakening Of Traditional Christianity During The Nineteenth Century Essay1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheological descendant of the Puritans? Stewart proclaimed that Ã¢â¬Å"the frowns of the world shall never discourage me, nor its smiles flatter me; for with the help of God I am resolved to withstand the fiery darts of the devil, and the assaults of wicked men.Ã¢â¬ Stewart uses her devout faith to declare that God is in control of her life and anything that happens in the earthly world is not of her desires or despair. She encourages her audience to unite with one another and love their fellow neighbor, suchRead MoreWar Poem Comparison Essay1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKevin Wilson Q. In an essay of not more than 1,500 words compare and contrast ONE PAIR of the two pairs of poems printed below. Your answer should exhibiy a clear understanding of each poemÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning and tone, and you should consider the effect and importance of formal features, such as rhyme scheme, sound patterning, word choice, figurative language and punctuation. Date handed in : 31st January 2011 This essay will compare the poems Ã¢â¬Å"On Passing the New Menin GateÃ¢â¬ by Siegfried SassoonRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessituation; they welcome these insects as a source of food and divine wonder. Achebe emphasizes this difference to sardonically address how white men deemed their actions benevolent. 4.) Title The title belongs to a line from William Butler YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Second ComingÃ¢â¬ . Throughout the book, events such as OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s decline in power and the arrival of white men reflect modernist ideas presented by the poem. Both literary works explore a breaking down of social norms and its psychological effect on peopleRead MoreOf Mice And Men Discussion Questions782 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesClara? What did she always do for Lennie? 11. Explain why George and Lennie had to leave their job in Weed. Be specific. 12. Lennie and George are two lonely men. Explain in detail what dream Lennie and George have. 13. At the end of Chapter 1, explain what example of foreshadowing (hints/clues about what could happen next in the story) is obvious. 14-15. Compare and Contrast the two protagonists (Cite examples from the novel to support your claims). Lennie George Maturity Dreams IntelligenceRead MoreHow does St John Rivers compare to Rochester? Essay1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe book touches on many themes for example love, social class and religion. During the novel Jane encounters two important men and through these men has two proposals of marriage, one from Rochester whom she loves and the other from her cousin St John Rivers. The two men are portrayed very differently, as are their marriage proposals. This essay will compare and contrast St John Rivers and Edward Rochester. Jane had a testing childhood at the hands of her aunt Mrs Reed and her cousins. She lived
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
One may ponder how the school came to be such a beautiful place, that even visitors and strangers pause for admiration. To begin with, in the year 1950-1951 through energetic Mayor Marcia V. Marino, the school of Sat. We will write a custom essay sample on The effects of implementation or any similar topic only for you Order Now Brigade was initiated to be opened. During those days the school site was purely a wilderness and abode of wild animals. Luckily in July 1950, some of the loyal and hardworking men in the persons of Mr.. Severe De Leon Villain, and Mrs.. Richard Cruz a barrio lieutenant, and P. T. A. President. They made a petition signed by all the residents of the place that the community Is In dire need of a school site and building to house their future and present citizens. With GodÃ¢â¬â¢s blessing the petition was granted and approved In August 1952 with Mr.. Potential Antonio being the first supervisor. Through his dynamic guidance and supervision a school building was sprung up from the good coordination, help and untiring effort to good people of Sat. Brigade. A lady teacher was assigned in the person of Miss Marcela Orbs to organized Grade I classes. The class was first housed temporarily in a private house until finally a school site has been surveyed by Engineer Felon Radon and approved by the government under proclamation No. 51 Series of 1962 by the late President MacDougal. Immediately In 1953 a P. T. A. Building was constructed In the school site spear headed by Mr.. Richard Cruz, the barrio captain, and parents of the community, with special mention to the late Mr.. Alexandra ABA, the chief carpenter who made the school building reached Its completion. Year In and year out additional crowded In until finally in June 1958-1959 a complete primary grades were opened under the head teacher Mr.. Edgar Artist. Year 1961-1962, intermediate classes were opened thus made Sat. Brigade a complete elementary school. His administration was marked by the construction of one MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s type, 2 Type B-A, and one P. T. A. Building. But time flew so fast that by the year 1969-1970. Mr.. Edgar Artist was transferred to Room Elementary School and was placed by Mrs.. Slalom B. Rodeos cashed teacher. During his first year of office a permanent fence, flagpole and concrete water- sealed toilet was constructed all of which were donated by the good people of Sat. Brigade and at the same time a MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s Type Building was constructed and completed too. By 1972-1973, the school got a lion share from the ten percent (10%) tax collection, which made the completion of two more buildings and P. T. A. building now seen at the west side of the school site. The following year she was promoted Into a Principal, and together with her promotion was the construction of another How to cite The effects of implementation, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: 'Trade Union Membership in Australia has Declined Significantly Since the 1980s. As a result,Unions are becoming an Irrelevant Actor in Australian Employment Relations'. Drawing on Academic Research and Commentary, Provide a Response to this statement. In framing your argument, Consider the Antecedents and Consequences of the Decline in Trade Union Membership and Trade Union Density. Answer: Introduction In reconnoitring the factors that led to the emergence and fall of industrial labour in Australia, the present paper contends that support for unions initially surfaced from a working class which was an outcome of the nations uncommon economic past. In the 20th century the incorporation of systems of mandatory arbitration, formulated to mediate industrial disputes, strengthened the support for labour unions. In the year 1948, the support for unionism was at its pinnacle. A long process of its fall started as the working cadre constituency that had supplied its social anchor fragmented due to structural transformations in the economy. The collapse of arbitration post-1986 aggravated this declining pattern, as did a rise in unwarranted employment and anti-union tactics of the employers (Docherty, 2010). The present essay reviews the literature on the fall in union density in Australia. Germane studies are critically analysed and compared, and the review brings to light the complexity o f the issue, the necessity to avoid simplistic responses, and makes recommendations regarding the areas of study that most likely augment the comprehension of the sharp decline in unionisation. Andtecedents and Consequences of Decline in Trade Union Density As per the Australian Bureau of Statistics figures of 2000, the fall in union membership in the nation, despite the attempts made by the Australian Council of Trade Unions to prevent further decline. While it is apparent that there is a reduction in union density, it is critical to evaluate the reasons behind it and what are the unions doing for combating such downward trend. In striving to handle the issue, it is significant to understand the major objectives of the union that draws members and the antecedents of the decline (Abbott, MacKinnon and Fallon, 2016). Australian unions were set up in the initial half of the 19th, with growth starting in the post gold-rush age. It is from then that the most rapid growth of the period appears to have been in the decade of the 1880s, wherein affluent economic conditions and a constricted labour market were drivers making for the development of unions. The main goal of a union is to enhance the well-being and promote the interests of its members. They were created to offset the higher financial power of the employers (Cooper et al., 2009). It has long been acknowledged that the dominance over the market by the employers could be countered by employees acting jointly and instituting organisations to negotiate on their part. The most crucial function performed by the union was to maximise the salaries and wages of its members. There are several reasons why employees might join a union. However, three factors are apparent. They are; sense the advantages of unionism surpass the likely costs; displeasure with financial aspects of their job; and an intention to impact those facets of the work environment via union means. Despite the evident benefits of the union, the membership of Australian union has declined. As emphasised by Kaufman, (2008) unionism harvested a core place in the Australian community between 1921 and mid-1950s. Even in the profundity of the Great Depression, the membership never plummeted below 42.5%. Moreover, with the recovery of the economy during World War II, it garnered unprecedented support. Times have significantly changed. Two decades ago 50% of all employees were part of the union. Currently, the rate of unionisation is only 23%. Even the public sector, which was once a mainstay of union power, has witnessed a sharp decline in the density. In the epoch of feminization, computerization and casualization, de-unionization is perhaps the most considerable change to have to strike the labour market over the years. A sign of fall in union strength is the rarity of strikes (Holland et al., 2011). The number of days lost to industrial conflicts is only one-fourth of its level during the early 1980s. To fathom the transition, Bashur and Oc, (2015) posit that it is helpful to discard two common elucidations for union decline briefly. The first is that the density decreased due to the increasing scepticism of workers toward it. In effect, attitude tends to reflect union power. When the membership increased during the 1970s, Australians were more likely to say, pollsters, that th ey believed unions had extreme strength and less likely to consent that unions had been a great thing for the country. Correspondingly, as they started waning during the 1990s, the portion of individuals who believed that unions carried too much power decreased steadily (Docherty, 2010). The second argument which is made is that de-unionization was an outcome of the fall in real wages which happened under the Accord. Yet as Leigh, (2011) points out in his study The Decline of an Institution, this statement means that unionisation must have fallen more during the 1980s (when there was a decline in real wage) than the 1990s (when there was a rise in real wages). However, the opposite is true the most drastic decline in unionisation happened during the 1990s. If not the Accord and attitudes then what led to union density witnessing the downward trend? The fall narrows down to four major factors: changes to the laws regulating unions, higher product market rivalry, growing inequality, and structural changes in the labour market. The most substantial factor in de-unionization in Australia has been transitions in the legal system regulating the unions. Hodder and Kretsos (2015) state that between 1990 and 1995, conformist governments in five out of six states brought into effect a legislation intended to prohibit mandatory unionisation, promoting individual bargaining, and introducing changes to non-award coverage easier. Paradoxically, this was similar to the process that took place in the 1920s, when a series of state Labour governments enforced law in favour of wage arbitration and mandatory unionism, resulting in an upsurge in union membership. During the later half of the 1980s, over 50% of the union members needed to be a union member as their employment condition. In the 1990s, not any longer bound to be a member, a huge proportion opted to give up their membership (Leigh, 2011). Expectedly, the unions that bore the biggest brunt were those that were highest dependent on mandatory union laws. The new la w was enforced from 1996 when the then government virtually eliminated mandatory unionism and made it challenging for the unions to hire and strike. The second most significant driver of de-unionization has been increasing competition. Driven by microeconomic reforms, revived Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and tariff cuts, the market for purchasing most goods and services are now considerably more competitive than during the 1970s. When companies have an oligopoly or monopoly situation, it is convenient for them to pay higher salaries to their workers. Prices are greater in non-competitive markets, and in economics jargon, this produces rents. The employers then share such rents with employees (Grenfell, 2017). When monopolies are split, and the marketplaces become competitive, employers have to cut costs. This puts pressure on the companies to follow powerful anti-union strategies to minimise the wage bill. The third argument for declining union diversity is the increase in earnings inequality. To comprehend how this works, it is crucial to acknowledge that unions not only aim greater wages but also for higher pay compression (Heidecker, 2013). This happens through standardised wage schedules, and claims that ask for an equal increase for every worker. Less pay distribution within an organisation also renders it easy for unions to form, as employees are likely to have mutual cause with those who get similar salaries. Economists have in general focused on the manner in which de-unionization impacts inequality (Bray, Waring and Cooper, 2011). In Australia, Jeff Borland found that 30% of the rise in earnings disparity among permanent males between 1986 and 1994 can be elucidated by falling unionisation. However, the opposite can also be true. If disparity increased (owing to globalisation, technological change, or other factors), unions are likely to find it difficult to create an effectiv e coalition between highly-paid and low-paid employees. The probability of two employees both earning $20 per hour joining the union is higher than if one make $10 and the other $30 (Koukoulas, 2015). The last factor is structural labour market changes. Throughout the developed economies, unions have an easier time hiring in the public sector, the manufacturing sector, among permanent employees and in big companies. The emergence of the service sector, casualization of the labor force, downscaling of government and the surfacing of SMEs are all transformations that disadvantage unions (Forsyth et al., 2017). To examine the impact of the above-mentioned factors, Peetz, (2012) used a method called shift-share analysis, and concluded that they were responsible for nearly 50% of the fall during 1982-92, however, do not elucidate much of the decline since then. As the drop-in unionisation has been quicker in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s, this demotes structural changes to a minor role in describing the overall drop in unionisation in the last 37 years. Evidence propose that voting by union members is being done with their feet and that other systems are emerging to replace them. The proportion of companies with mutual consultative committees grew two times between 1990 and 1995, and the number of companies with ad-hoc employer-employee committees also increased considerably. Requirements that once only unions could meet are now addressed by new organisations (Davis, 2010). The macro and microeconomic impacts of the plummeting strength of unions have been debated by policymakers and economists. Nonetheless, the empirical evidence suggests that the effect of the drop on economic aggregates and company performance is not a devastating cause of concern. However, the relationship of falling union strength with increasing earning disparity and the minimising direct communication between employees and employers is potentially more troublesome (Kelty, 2011). For the period of 1995-2010, the coefficient estimate for the alteration in union strength is negative and insignificant statistically, proposing that transitions in union density were no longer connected to redistribution. It is reported by Toscano (2015) that union fall since the 1980s has been accompanied by alterations in the union members position in income diffusion. It is speculated that, since the position of an average union member has improved with a decline in density, union members are also no longer very supportive of redistributive policies and wage solidarity. Hence, the disparity issue might stay, but the role played unions is more controversial. Though companies in competitive labour markets might undersupply workers voice, but it does not mean that independent unionism is the solution, either from an employee standpoint, or the practicable interest of strengthening productivity. In fact, many researchers have identified that the drop in union voice has been coupled with a substantial growth in non-union voice, such that the total exposure of voice mechanisms has been stable and high (Furze et al., 2011). In short, Australian workers have selected non-union voice over no voice at all. In addition to this evaluating voice regimes, non-union voice overshadows union voice for a series of perceived result indicators financial performance, productivity, and industrial relations climate if not turnover. This provides credibility to the concept that management has a motiv ation of investing in non-union voice, although such positive scene is muddled by comparisons between voice types (Schaper, 2014). Conclusion With the waning of unions, todays labour markets of Australia are closer to the theoretical models of competitive markets than they were during the 1970s. This is mainly because of a succession of legal changes that have rendered it difficult for unions to organise, but also owing to higher competition in the markets, growing wage disparity and alterations in the composition of the workforce. It is extremely unlikely that any of these alterations will be inversed. More Australians are now employed in sectors that have always had less union strength. Employment in conventionally powerful union sectors like the public sector and the manufacturing sector are being substituted by jobs in service industries and community-based establishments that have low union density. Permanent employees are being substituted by casual and part-time workers, and such types of employment have lower rates of union membership. More of the labor force has become contractors, self-employed or employed in sma ll businesses and do not perceive union membership as important. References Abbott, K., MacKinnon, B and Fallon, P. 2016. Understanding employment relations. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Addison, T. J. 2014. The consequences of trade union power erosion. IZA World of Labor. Bashur, M and Oc, B. 2015. When voice matters: A multilevel review of the impact of voice in organisations. Journal of Management, 41(5): 1530-54. Bray, M., Waring, P. and Cooper, R. 2011. Employment Relations: Theory and Practice. Sydney: McGraw-Hill. Cooper, R., Ellem, B., Briggs, C., and Broek, D. 2009. Anti-unionism, employer strategy, and the Australian State, 19962005. Labor Studies Journal, 34(3): 33962. Davis, M. 2010. Unions face fight on a new front. (September 22, Sydney). Accessed March 29, 2017. Docherty, C. J. 2010. The A to Z of Australia. Rowman Littlefield. Forsyth, A., Howe, J., Gahan, P. and Landau, I. 2017. Establishing the Right to Bargain Collectively in Australia and the UK: Are Majority Support Determinations under Australias Fair Work Act a More Effective Form of Union Recognition? Industrial Law Journal. Furze, B., Savy, P., Brym, J. R. and Lie, J. 2011. Sociology in Todays World. Cengage Learning. Grenfell, O. 2017. Australian report highlights collapse of union membership. 19 January. World Socialist Website. https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/01/19/unio-j19.html. Viewed 29 March 2017. Heidecker, P. 2013. Four Reasons For The Decline In Union Membership. 24 April. Clean Link. https://www.cleanlink.com/cp/article/Four-Reasons-For-The-Decline-In-Union-Membership--15514. Viewed 29 March 2017. Hodder, A. and Kretsos, L. 2015. Young Workers and Trade Unions: A Global View. Springer. Holland, P., Pyman, A., Cooper, B and Teicher, J. 2011. Employee voice and job satisfaction in Australia: The centrality of direct voice. Human Resource Management, 50(1): 95-111. Kaufman, B. 2008. Paradigms in industrial relations: original, modern and versions in-between. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(2): 314-339. Kelty, W. 2011. The introduction of enterprise bargaining a retrospective: Opening address. Enterprise Bargaining in Australia Workshop, Melbourne, Melbourne Law School. Koukoulas, S. 2015. The decline of union membership. 26 November. The Adelaide Review, https://adelaidereview.com.au/opinion/business-finance/the-decline-of-union-membership/. Viewed 29 March 2017. Leigh, A. 2011. The Decline of an Institution. Australian Financial Review: 21. Peetz, D. 2012. THE IMPACTS AND NON-IMPACTS ON UNIONS OF ENTERPRISE BARGAINING. Labor and Industry, 22(3): 237-254. Schaper, T. M. 2014. A brief history of small business in Australia, 1970-2010. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, 3(2): pp.222-236. Toscano, N. 2015. Trade union membership hits record low. (October 27, Sydney). Accessed March 29, 2017.
Monday, March 23, 2020
Cloning Shortly after the announcement that British scientists had successfully cloned a sheep, Dolly, cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more feasible in today's society. The word clone has been applied to cells as well as to organisms, so that a group of cells stemming from a single cell is also called a clone. Usually the members of a clone are identical in their inherited characteristics that is, in their genes except for any differences caused by mutation. Identical twins, for example, who originate by the division of a single fertilized egg, are members of a clone; whereas nonidentical twins, who derive from two separate fertilized eggs, are not clones. (Microsoft? Encarta? 97 Encyclopedia). There are two known ways that we can clone humans. The first way involves splitting an embryo into several halves and creating many new individuals from that embryo. The second method of cloning a human involves taking cells from an already existing human being and clo ning them, in turn creating other individuals that are identical to that particular person. With these two methods at our desposal, we must ask ourselves two very important questions: Should we do this, and Can we? There is no doubt that many problems involving the technological and ethical sides of this issue will arise and will be virtually impossible to avoid, but the overall idea of cloning humans is one that we should accept as a possible reality for the future. Cloning humans is an idea that has always been thought of as something that could be found in science fiction novels, but never as a concept that society could actually experience. Today's technological speed has brought us to the piont to where almost anything is possible. Sarah B. Tegen, '97 MIT Biology Undergraduate President states, I think the cloning of an entire mammal has shown me exactly how fast biology is moving ahead, I had no idea we were so close to this kind of accomplishment. Based on the current science , though, most of these dreams and fears are premature, say some MIT biologists. Many biologist claim that true human cloning is something still far in the future. This raises ethical questions now as towhether or not human cloning should even be attempted. (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/). There are many problems with cloning humans. One method of human cloning is splitting embryos. The main issue as to whether or not human cloning is possible through the splitting of embryos began in 1993 when experimentation was done at George Washington University Medical Center in Washington D.C. There Dr. Jerry Hall experimented with the possibility of human cloning and began this moral and ethical debate. There it was concluded that cloning is not something that can be done as of now, but it is quite a possibility for the future. These scientists experimented eagerly in aims of learning how to clone humans. Ruth Macklin of U.S. News & World Report writes, Hall and other scientists split single humans embryos into identical copies, a technology that opens a Pandora's box of ethical questions and has sparked a storm of controversy around the world (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/). They attempted to create seventeen human embryos in a laboratory dish and when it had grown enoug h, separated them into forty-eight individual cells. Two of the separated cells survived for a few days in the lab developed into new human embryos smaller than the head of a pin and consisting of thirty-two cells each. (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/) Although we cannot clone a human yet, this experiment occurred almost two years ago and triggered almost an ethical emergency. Evidence from these experiments received strange reactions from the public. Ruth Macklin states, Cloning is a radical challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, so it's not unreasonable to be concerned that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust--a sort of yuk factor. And that makes it hard for even trained scientists and ethicists to see the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a persuasive case that it would do any real harm, either. (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/). Theologians contend that to
Friday, March 6, 2020
Adolf Hitler1 essays Founder and leader of Nazi Party, Head of State and Commander of the Armed Forces, Adolf Hitler was born in Austria on April 20, 1889. Hitler was born to Austrian customs officials, Alois Schickelgruber Hitler, and his third wife, Klara Poelzl, both from Austria. Hitler was a resentful and discontent child who was moody, lazy, and having a short temper. As a young man Hitler was very hostile towards his father and strongly attached to his mother, whose death from cancer in December of 1908 really had a big impact on his life. After spending about four years in the Realschule in Linz, he dropped out at sixteen years of age with intentions on becoming a painter. In October of 1907 Hitler left home and headed to Vienna, where he was to lead the bohemian, vagabond existence until 1913. The Viennese Academy of Fine Arts rejected him and he spent five years of misery in Vienna as he later recalled. Hitler's views didn't change much within the years he still had a very strong hatred towards Jews and Marxists. In Vienna he received his first education in politics by studying the techniques of the popular Christian Mayor, and Karl Lueger, where he picked up stereotyped, obsessive anti-Semitism with it's brutal, violent sexual connotations and concern with the purity of blood. From Georg von Schoenerer, Lanz von Liebenfels, and the Austrian Pan German leader, Hitler learned to discern in the Eternal Jew, the symbol and cause of all chaos and corruption in politics, and the economy. In May 1913 Hitler left Vienna for Munich. When war broke out in August 1914, Hitler joined the Sixteenth Bavarian Infantry Regiment, serving as a dispatch runner. Hitler proved to be a courageous soldier, and received an Iron Cross for bravery, however he never got past Lance Corporal in ranking. He was injured a couple times, and then badly gassed four weeks before the end of the war. He spent three months recuperating in the hospital, temporarily b...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
The European single market crisis - Essay Example This essay entails of the factors that the Europe focuses to use in making positive changes stimulate economic growth. It outlines the various approaches that the country seeks to use in economic recovery process, asserting relative data sources and the theoretical perspective on the dataÃ¢â¬â¢s view. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s policies propelled tremendous economic growth since the year 2009, with a relative increase in GDP. The highest marginal implication on the GDP was an overall increase by 3% throughout the years of 2009-2011. This was possible despite the many challenges that the state suffered after implementing the single market, which affected economic integrations. B Balassa encouraged the implementation of single markets with arguments that it would help the country achieve monetary union in the globe. They argued that single markets would help eliminate most of the barriers though this was not possible with the free movement of goods, services, people, and even capital (Bald win and Wyplosz, 2009: 256). As the European states aim at improving on their financial capacities, some of the main objectives laid down help in strategizing plans for the progress of the economy (Nello, 2009: 219). The stability of the euro is necessary to help build confidence to other states in trade transactions. The issue of maintaining the tax rates for enabling the prices of commodities to suit the consumer financial ability. Tax increase results to an increase in production costs and thereby increasing the commodities cost. This in return increases the living costs and demands for increases in salaries by the consumers. Another issue lies on creating an internal market for local commodities by laying import regulations within the region. This helps solve the cross border conflicts and increases efficiency of financial institutions between the regions (Piggott and Cook, 2006: 76). The crisis in the formation of single markets Through the integration of European countries, af ter periods of World War II between America and Europe has helped calm the economic crisis. Many economic treaties enacted helped improve on economic performance and to strengthen competition between the regions to help increase the quality competence of products from the two regions (Craig and Elliott, 2009: 209). The European Union also passed several acts in their agreement and gave directions on financial expenditures towards developing the rural areas and developing reliable energy production, which would majorly boost on the emergence of new industries increasing the economic activities in the region. Through the cohesion between the two regions, the internal market developed competence in the global market and thereby this ensured that the economy was strong even after the crisis (Cini and Borraga, 2010: 164). The European single market was at efforts to pursue single currency for all the member states and aimed at getting involved in international trades as one joint unit. T hey believed that such effort would help increase the trade area, reduce operational costs, and implement similar economic policies across al the union states. They had similar tariffs and quota systems with outside states but free trade within member states. They faced challenges on standardization of qualities and regulations and specifications for production. The lag by the union states in